HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Fri, 27 Nov 2020 09:29:45 GMT 成人电影播放软件网址

互联网+设计 3D设计开启家具智能制造时代

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 曲美家居拟6000万元设立合资家居公司 持股60% (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

屡挫屡战 欧普照明IPO再上会

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

In one tweet that was posted on Jan 10, Obama wrote, "Thank you for everything. My last ask is the same as my first. I'm asking you to believe - not in my ability to create change, but in yours."
ICBC said net profits increased 0.5 per cent for the year to December 31 2015 — the smallest increase since it listed. Returns on average total assets declined 0.1 percentage points to 1.30 per cent.
今年1至10月份的民间固定资产投资同比增长2.9%,比1至9月份的增速快了0.4个百分点。
在这部1998年的古装剑侠动作电影中,安东尼奥·班德拉斯扮演了一个无聊的贵族,他有时会扮成蒙面歹徒,从腐败领导人手中拯救加州的墨西哥平民。虽然佐罗听起来可能像个普通的老派超级英雄,但是《佐罗的面具》依据的故事大部分来源于现实世界中,一个叫乔伊·穆里埃塔的亡命之徒。
10月份,美国联邦政府停止运转。星巴克CEO霍华德舒尔茨拒绝在所有公司都受到不利影响时袖手旁观。他写了一封请愿书,号召各公司CEO上街游行,给国会施加压力,迫使后者通过预算案。
No. Football punditry is a mug’s game. Better to have the benefit of hindsight. There have been 20 previous World Cups. Of those, Brazil (five titles) and Germany (four), are regular contenders. Home advantage helps, with host nations winning the trophy six times. But next year’s festival of football is being held in Russia, which has the lowest-ranked team in the tournament.
['epis?ud]

由于今年是意大利标志性导演米开朗基罗·安东尼奥尼逝世10周年,为向大师致敬,将放映他的13部经典作品--从他的出道作品《某种爱的记录》到1995年的爱情片《云上的日子》。
"I have school tomorrow, so I can't stay up late," she told the paper.
影片可能太过非主流,不具有获得大奖的影响力。
如果Lloyd Grossman有机会进入奥斯卡得主们的家中,他将会在很多不同的地方看到他们各自的小金人,从高级房产的壁炉台到积尘良久的壁橱深处,都可能看到它的身影。
“As long as overall markets remain relatively constructive and transactions continue to be executed well, we continue to expect healthy volumes over the rest of the year,” said David Ludwig, head of Americas equity capital markets at Goldman Sachs.

Footnotes

  • 山东家具产业:实现由大到强需要创新驱动
  • After years working with large consumer product companies like Stride Rite and Keds, Pieri grew frustrated with the difficulty mom-and-pop shops had launching new products. "The more innovative a product—as opposed to mainstream and "known"—the harder it was to get distribution," she explains. In response, she launched The Grommet, a discovery platform that connects customers with inventors' stories and their products, five years ago. Pieri, whose company helped launch products including SodaStream and Fitbit, counts HP CEO Meg Whitman as a mentor and has a side-gig as an entrepreneur in residence at Harvard Business School.

Her mother discovered the debits on Jan 30, China Central Television reported.
CCTV reported Friday morning that teams would still try to lift the vessel.
苹果推出了新一代iMac 电脑,1998年5月6日,旧金山
10.电脑系统分析师
警方在屋内查出一柄40口径的Smith & Wesson半自动手枪,目前正在进行弹道测试,检查器是否牵涉其他犯罪活动。
支持:该片在威尼斯电影节首映后,获得观众喝彩。

央行调查报告:43.5%居民认为目前房价可以接受

References

View Abstract